Cognition in 4-11 year old children in Turkey


Pediatric Rehabilitation, vol.3, no.3, pp.119-124, 1999 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 3 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 1999
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/136384999289522
  • Journal Name: Pediatric Rehabilitation
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.119-124
  • Keywords: Cognition, Cognitive development, Cognitive performance
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among age, sex and academic performance with cognitive ability on healthy age groups. Methods: The subjects were 71 children, aged 4-11 years (x = 7.11). The children were divided into four age groups: 22 of the 71 children were at kindergarten and 49 children were in primary education. Thirty nine children were girls and 32 were boys. Twenty six children had good academic achievement and 23 did not. Each child was tested on the LOTCA battery by the Occupational Therapy Unit of Hacettepe University School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. In this study, seven subtests were used from LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment). These are orientation for place, orientation for time, overlapping figures, praxis, reproduction of a two dimensional model, drawing a clock, and categorization. Results: Statistical analysis of the relationships demographic variables, academic achievement and performance on the battery revealed that age was significant, sex was insignificant and academic achievement was significant when correlated with cognitive abilities. Conclusions: The results suggest that cognitive abilities tested show some differences. For this reason, in the school or other educational settings, children who have low academic achievement should be assessed also for cognitive abilities and then provided with occupational therapy.