Macrolides for better resolution of community-acquired pneumonia: A global meta-analysis of clinical outcomes with focus on microbial aetiology

Kyprianou M., Dakou K., Aktar A., Aouina H., Behbehani N., Dheda K., ...More

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.62, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 62 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2023.106942
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Macrolides, Microbiology, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Underreported countries
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: This meta-analysis examined the effect of macrolides on resolution of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and interpretation of clinical benefit according to microbiology; emphasis is given to data under-reported countries (URCs). Methods: This meta-analysis included 47 publications published between 1994 and 2022. Publications were analysed for 30-d mortality (58 759 patients) and resolution of CAP (6465 patients). A separate meta-analysis was done for the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in URCs. Results: Mortality after 30 d was reduced by the addition of macrolides (odds ratio [OR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51–0.82). The OR for CAP resolution when macrolides were added to the treatment regimen was 1.23 (95% CI 1.00–1.52). In the CAP resolution analysis, the most prevalent pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.68%; 95% CI 9.36–16.95%). Analysis of the pathogen epidemiology from the URCs included 12 publications. The most prevalent pathogens were S. pneumoniae (24.91%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.90%). Conclusion: The addition of macrolides to the treatment regimen led to 35% relative decrease of 30-d mortality and to 23% relative increase in resolution of CAP.