Microwave assisted methacrylation of Kappa carrageenan: A bioink for cartilage tissue engineering


International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.164, pp.3523-3534, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 164
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.241
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.3523-3534
  • Keywords: Bioink, Microwave energy, Kappa carrageenan, Cartilage tissue engineering, CHITOSAN, HYDROGEL, BLENDS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


© 2020In this study, we aimed to obtain stable Kappa carrageenan (κCar) hydrogel that could be used as a bioink for cartilage regeneration. For this purpose, we described an effective and considerably faster methacrylation process by using microwave energy. Thus, microwave-methacrylated κCar (Mw-κCar-MA) with ≥85% degree of methacrylation (DM) was synthesized despite the use of a low concentration of methacrylic anhydride (MA) at 1000 W in 5 min. Then, Mw-κCar-MA was photo-crosslinked by only using UV irradiation for 40 s. Characterization studies proved that Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels were stronger and have lower weight loss (~20% at 30 days) than that of conventionally synthesized κCar-MA hydrogels. Viscosities of the Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels were found to be sufficient to use in 3D bioprinters. Furthermore, Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels enhanced the viability, proliferation, and GAG deposition of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Therefore, we proposed that Mw-κCar-MA can be considered as a suitable bioink for cartilage tissue engineering.