Amyloidosis (A) related to familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) causes serious morbidity and mortality in children. Our study evaluates serum levels of apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, AII, B, and E and Apo AII/AI ratios as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for amyloidosis in children with FMF and FMF-A. Results were compared with those of patients with childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) and healthy children (controls). Significantly lower serum levels of Apo AI (90.20+/-28.30 mg/dl) were documented in patients with FMF-A than in all other groups (FMF 126.89+/-51.07 mg/dl, NS 140.38+/-33.73 mg/dl, and controls 134.67+/-12.73 mg/dl) (P<0.01). Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for this test were 85%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. Apo AII/AI ratio results were essentially equal in all groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that a decreased Apo AI serum level, but not Apo AII/AI ratio, is a useful, non-invasive test for the early diagnosis of FMF-A in children.