RAW 264.7 cells are one of the most recommended cell lines for investigating the activity and differentiation of osteoclasts. These cells differentiate into osteoclasts in the presence of two critical components: receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF). Melatonin (MEL) hormone has recently become one of the small molecules used in the field of bone regeneration and bone disease treatment, as it has the ability to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclasts directly by suppression of the NF-KB signaling pathway. The main aim of the current study is to determine sufficient RANKL/MCSF concentrations for differentiation of the cells to osteoclasts and to describe the repressive effect of MEL on the osteoclastogenesis of these cells. In this regard, it was found that 10 ng/mL of RANKL- and MCSF-containing medium is suitable for inducing osteoclastogenesis of the cells. In addition, melatonin at doses in the range of 100-1000 mu M does not have a cytotoxic effect. Subsequently, results of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, TRAP staining, and relative expressions of cathepsin K, nuclear factor of activated T cells one (NFATC1), and TRAP genes showed a suppressive effect of MEL-especially 800 mu M-on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis of these cells.