COVID-19 and endocrine and metabolic diseases. An updated statement from the European Society of Endocrinology

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Puig-Domingo M., Marazuela M., YILDIZ O. B., Giustina A.

ENDOCRINE, vol.72, no.2, pp.301-316, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12020-021-02734-w
  • Journal Name: ENDOCRINE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.301-316
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background COVID-19 has completely changed our daily clinical practice as well as our social relations. Many organs and biological systems are involved in SARS-Cov-2 infection, either due to direct virus-induced damage or to indirect effects that can have systemic consequences. Endocrine system is not only an exception but its involvement in COVID-19 is so relevant that an "endocrine phenotype" of COVID-19 has progressively acquired clinical relevance. Aim We have been appointed by the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) to update with the current statement ESE members and the whole endocrine community on the emerging endocrine phenotype of COVID-19 and its implication for the prevention and management of the disease. Conclusions Diabetes has a major role in this phenotype since it is one of the most frequent comorbidities associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19. Careful management including treatment modifications may be required for protecting our patients rather with known diabetes from the most dangerous consequences of COVID-19 or hospitalized with COVID-19, but also in patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced newly onset diabetes. Obesity increases susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and the risk for COVID-19 adverse outcome. Adequate nutritional management needs to be granted to patients with obesity or undernourishment in order to limit their increased susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection. Lack of vitamin D, hypocalcemia and vertebral fractures have also emerged as frequent findings in the hospitalized COVID-19 population and may negatively impact on the outcome of such patients. Also, in patients with adrenal insufficiency prompt adaptation of glucocorticoid doses may be needed. Moreover, in this updated statement role of sex hormones as well as peculiar pituitary and thyroid aspects of COVID-19 have been included. Finally, in view of the mass vaccination, potential implications for endocrine patients should be considered.