Gaucher disease (GD) is the most frequent lysosomal glycolipid storage disorder due to autosomal recessive deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase and is characterized by the accumulation of glucocerebroside. In this work we carried out molecular analysis of the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) in 57 unrelated patients and the alleleic frequencies of gene mutations in Turkish patients are reported. The most prevalent are L444P and N370S accounting for 42% and 30% in our patients. We identified three novel genetic alterations: two missense changes S356F, L296V that are associated with the severe phenotype of type 1 GD. 303-305delCAC was identified in a homozygous state in one patient type 1 or type 3. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.