Demountable Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Way Forward to Minimize Energy and Waste in Construction Industry

Ashour A., Figueira D., Almahmood H., Yıldırım G., ALDEMİR A., ŞAHMARAN M.

International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, İstanbul, Turkey, 5 - 07 June 2023, vol.349 LNCE, pp.72-80 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 349 LNCE
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/978-3-031-32519-9_6
  • City: İstanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.72-80
  • Keywords: CO2 emission, Demolition waste, Demountable structures, Dry connections, Sustainability
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In the current practice, at the end of life of a reinforced concrete structure, it is destructively demolished, and the demolition waste is limited to downcycling and low-tech applications, while the remaining is being landfilled. A recent report showed that construction and demolition waste (CDW) is the biggest waste stream in the EU by weight, accounting for over 800 million tons in 2018, i.e. around 32% of the total waste generated. This approach is clearly wasteful of energy, jeopardizing the health of individuals and environments and at high cost. However, design for deconstruction (DfD) of reinforced concrete structures would facilitate the future reuse of structural elements at the end of their life, potentially achieving a significant reduction in embodied energy of structures and CO2 emission as well as giving the owners the benefit of retaining the value of their assets. In this paper, recent research developments and practical applications of DfD of reinforced concrete structures are reviewed and key technical issues are discussed. The focus is on connections that should be designed in such a way to allow demounting of precast reinforced concrete structural elements, including beam/column, wall/wall, column/column and segmental slab connections. The main achievements and progress to date are outlined for each type of dry connections, along with the aspects that still need to be developed. The paper concludes with an outline of challenges in the application of DfD in concrete structures.