Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors: The Past and the Future

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Srour S. A., AKIN S.

Journal of Immunotherapy and Precision Oncology, vol.6, no.1, pp.19-30, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 6 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.36401/jipo-22-7
  • Journal Name: Journal of Immunotherapy and Precision Oncology
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.19-30
  • Keywords: CAR T-cell, chimeric antigen receptor, immunotherapy, solid tumors
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is the new standard treatment for various indications in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Despite the several preclinical and early phase clinical trials, the overall clinical experience has been disappointing when applying this innovative therapy in solid tumors. The failure of CAR T-cell therapy and its limited antitumor activity in solid tumors have been attributed to several mechanisms, including tumor antigen heterogeneity, the hostile tumor microenvironment and poor trafficking of CAR T cells into tumor sites, and the unacceptable toxicities in some settings, among others. However, remarkable improvements have been made in understanding many of these failure mechanisms for which several emerging novel approaches are being applied to overcome these challenges. In this review, after a brief historic background for immunotherapy in solid tumors, we highlight the recent developments achieved in CAR T-cell designs, summarize completed clinical trials, and discuss current challenges facing CAR T-cell therapy and the suggested strategies to overcome these barriers.