Health Warnings, Smoking Rules, and Smoking Status: A Cross-National Comparison of Turkey and the United States

Wintemberg J., Yu M., KARADAĞ ÇAMAN Ö.

SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE, vol.53, no.6, pp.963-971, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1387566
  • Journal Name: SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.963-971
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


Objectives: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking status (i.e., current, former and never) between the United States and Turkey in terms of age and gender, and examine how smoking rules and health warnings are associated with smoking status within and between the two countries. Methods: The study used data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (U.S. sample, N = 60,196) and the 2012 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (Turkey sample, N = 9,581). SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC with a weighted variable was used to examine the associations between demographics (age, gender and education), smoking rules, health warnings, and smoking status within and between the two countries. Results: There was an 18% current smoking prevalence among U.S. sample, compared to 27% of the Turkey sample. The U.S. sample had a higher rate of former smoking compared to the Turkey sample (25% vs. 22%). In both countries, being older and male gender predicted former smoking while being younger and female gender predicted never smoking. Having seen a health warning, and not allowing smoking in the vehicle and home positively predicted former and never smoking status. Higher education predicted both smoking statuses in the U.S. only. Conclusions: It is important to work with partners particularly in low- and middle-income countries (e.g., Turkey) to combat the global tobacco epidemic. In both counties, cessation endeavors should emphasize a comprehensive understanding of smoking status in terms of smoking rules in personal spaces and health warnings.