Comparing application methods of reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract in deep-fried meatballs: impact on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation


Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jsfa.13414
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: antioxidant, Ganoderma lucidum, heterocyclic aromatic amine, meatball, reishi mushroom
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


BACKGROUND: The present research was conducted to investigate the impact of reishi mushroom extract (RME) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in meatballs. Sample preparations involved applying RME using either the spreading or addition method, with varying concentrations (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% of RME), followed by deep-frying at temperatures of 150 and 190 °C for 3 min. RESULTS: The types and levels of HAAs varied based on the frying temperature, method of extract application, and the extract concentration. Notably, total HAA contents increased with rising the frying temperature (P < 0.01) and varied from undetectable levels to 4.91 ng g−1 across all analyzed meatballs. The addition method was more effective than the spreading method (P < 0.01), and among the concentrations tested 0.25% RME exhibited the highest efficacy in reducing total HAAs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition method inhibited lipid oxidation more efficiently compared to the surface spreading method (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that RME had mitigating effects on HAAs depending on the concentration and frying conditions in deep-fried meatball samples. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.