In this study, a novel photoluminescence material for the detection of tributyltin (TBT) was developed by using a paper-based nanocomposite system. For this purpose, molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIN) were synthesized with mini-emulsion polymerization technique. Graphene quantum dots obtained by the hydrothermal pyrolysis were immobilized to the nanoparticle surface via EDC-NHS coupling. The fabrication of sensing platform for TBT can be divided into two steps that are the preparation of nanocomposite and the applying the nanocomposite onto nitrocellulose membrane. The selectivity constant and association kinetics were calculated to analyze the interaction of TBT with immobilized MINs. The results proved that the developed nanosensor is promising for the determination of TBT with high selectivity and sensitivity reaching a detection limit of 0.23 ppt in seawater. This novel photoluminescent nanosensor has the potential to pave the way for further studies and applications.