Adrenocortical Cancer in the Real World: A Comprehensive Analysis of Clinical Features and Management from the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG)

YAŞAR H. A., AKTAŞ B. Y., Ucar G., SEZGİN GÖKSU S., Bilgetekin I., Cakar B., ...More

Clinical Genitourinary Cancer, vol.22, no.3, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.clgc.2024.102077
  • Journal Name: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Adjuvant therapy, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Mitotane, Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic factors
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare yet highly malignant tumor associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to delineate the clinical features, survival patterns, and treatment modalities of ACC, providing insights into the disease's prognosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 157 ACC patients was performed to assess treatment methodologies, demographic patterns, pathological and clinical attributes, and laboratory results. The data were extracted from the hospital's database. Survival analyses were conducted using the Kaplan–Meier method, with univariate and multivariate analyses being performed through the log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results: The median age was 45, and 89.4% had symptoms at the time of diagnosis. The median tumor size was 12 cm. A total of 117 (79.6%) patients underwent surgery. A positive surgical border was detected in 26 (24.1%) patients. Adjuvant therapy was administered to 44.4% of patients. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 44.3 months. Median OS was found to be 87.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 74.4-100.2) in stage 2, 25.8 (95% CI 6.5-45.1) months in stage 3, and 13.3 (95% CI 7.0-19.6) months in stage 4 disease. Cox regression analysis identified age, Ki67 value, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and hormonal activity as significant factors associated with survival in patients with nonmetastatic disease. In metastatic disease, only patients who underwent surgery exhibited significantly improved overall survival in univariate analyses. Conclusion: ACC is an uncommon tumor with a generally poor prognosis. Understanding the defining prognostic factors in both localized and metastatic diseases is vital. This study underscores age, Ki67 value, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and hormonal activity as key prognostic determinants for localized disease, offering critical insights into the complexities of ACC management and potential avenues for targeted therapeutic interventions.