Determination of underground mining induced displacements using GPS observations in Zonguldak-Kozlu Hard Coal Basin

CAN E., kuşçu ş., MEKİK Ç.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COAL GEOLOGY, vol.89, no.1, pp.62-69, 2012 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 89 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.coal.2011.08.006
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.62-69
  • Keywords: Coal mining, GPS measurements, Horizontal displacements, Kozlu Hard Coal Region, Mining subsidence, Subsidence monitoring, Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin


Mining activities cause horizontal and vertical movements on the earth's surface as well as in underground, which give rise to environmental, economical, judicial and urbanization problems. These movements or displacements - the results of collapsing, vertical displacement, swelling, slope change, bending and cracking - are referred to as mining subsidence which depends on the depth and dimension of mined area, production methods, underground operating speed, time and geological structure of area. The mining subsidence eventually affects the development of cities and city life by causing damages and destruction on buildings and structures on the surface. In order to study the displacements caused by on-going mining activities. City of Zonguldak, its town Kozlu and its near surroundings are chosen since they constitute the center for hard coal basin in Turkey for 160 years with a population of 300 000 and an area of 80 km(2).