The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among 6-10 year old Turkish primary school children. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI) was used to record and measure the malocclusions. The findings were that 40.38 per cent of the observed population showed normal occlusion, 21.85 per cent had minor manifestations of malocclusion and treatment need was slight, 25.17 per cent of the subjects showed definite malocclusion, 7.54 per cent had severe malocclusion and 5.06 per cent had a very severe handicap with a mandatory treatment requirement. Orthodontic treatment need increased between 6 and 10 years of age. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean TPI values of male and female subjects.