A geohazard reconnaissance study based on geoscientific information for development needs of the western region of Istanbul (Turkey)


Duman T., Can T., Ulusay R., Kecer M., Emre O., Ates S., ...Daha Fazla

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, cilt.48, ss.871-888, 2005 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 48 Konu: 7
  • Basım Tarihi: 2005
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s00254-005-0026-y
  • Dergi Adı: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.871-888

Özet

The role of geoenvironmental information is becoming increasingly important as legislative changes have forced developers and planning authorities to consider more implications and impact on the environment of large-scale development initiatives. Therefore, integration of surface and subsurface geoscientific information for development needs has prime importance and provides a means of identifying potential problems and opportunities at an early stage in any planned development. However, from the experience of recent natural disasters, it is evident that this was not the case taken into consideration in many countries. In addition to thousands of casualties, many urbanized areas, industrial districts and large-scale engineering structures suffered severe damages from the natural hazards due to many reasons including the lack of preliminary engineering geological maps and zoning maps of the settlement areas. Turkey is one of the countries which is exposed to natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and floods. In particular, the devastating 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, which affected the Marmara Region of Turkey, focused the attention on densely urbanized and industrialized metropolitan areas such as Istanbul. The rapid growth of Istanbul, particularly towards west with minimal geoscientific information resulted in an overwhelming pressure on the natural environment. In addition, a large earthquake, which is expected to occur in the Marmara Sea within the next 30 years, also pose a threat to the city and its surroundings. In this study, on the basis of the geological, geomorphological and geophysical reconnaissance study, an integrated geoscientific data were collected from the western region of Istanbul and evaluated for geoliazards. The paper focuses on the geological and geomorphological aspects that control the occurrence of some geohazards such as earthquake-induced liquefaction, landslides and flooding. In this context, the geological map of the region was revised and Quaternary deposits were classified into I I units, in detail. Liquefaction-prone areas were evaluated by using geomorphological criteria based on field investigation, by the examination of the available records from 88 bore-holes drilled on recent deposits and by the data from resistivity profiles. The landslides within the region were classified according to their type, relative depth and activity. In addition, fluvial and marine floodprone areas were also delimited within the region. Finally, a series of maps such as landslide inventory maps, and maps showing liquefaction- and flood-prone areas were produced with the aid of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assist in designing further detailed site investigations and to reduce costs by ensuring a more focused approach to strategic planning and site selection.