Landslide susceptibility mapping of the slopes in the residual soils of the Mengen region (Turkey) by deterministic stability analyses and image processing techniques

Gokceoglu C. , AKSOY H. H.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY, cilt.44, ss.147-161, 1996 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 44
  • Basım Tarihi: 1996
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/s0013-7952(97)81260-4
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.147-161


The aim of the present study is to prepare a landslide susceptibility map of a region of about 120 km(2), between Gokcesu and Pazarkoy (around Mengen, NW Turkey) at approximately 10 km north of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, where frequent landslides occur. For this purpose, mechanisms of the landslides were studied by two-dimensional stability analyses together with held observations, and the parameters controlling the development of such slides were identified. Field observations indicated that the failures generally developed within the unconsolidated and/or semi-consolidated soil units in forms of rotational, successive shallow landslides within the weathered zone in Mengen, Cukurca and Sazlar formations. Although consisting of residual soils, Capak and Gokdag formations do not exhibit landslides as the natural slopes formed on these, do not exceed the critical slope angles. Statistical evaluations and distribution of the landslides on the topographical map showed that such parameters as cohesion, angle of internal friction, slope, relative height, orientation of slopes, proximity to drainage pattern, vegetation cover and proximity to major faults were the common features on the landslides. Digital images were obtained to represent all these parameters on gray scale on the SPOT image and on the digital elevation model (DEM) of the area using image processing techniques. Soil mechanics tests were carried out on 36 representative samples collected from different units, and parameters were determined for two-dimensional stability analyses basing on ''sensitivity approach'' and for the preparation of digital shear strength map. In order to determine the critical slope angle values for the residual soils, a series of sensitivity analyses were realized by using two-dimensional deterministic slope stability analyses techniques for varying values of cohesion, angle of internal friction and slope height along with varying saturation conditions. According to the results of the sensitivity analyses, the Mengen formation was found to be most susceptible unit to landslides, covering about 33.5% of the region studied in terms of surface area. The distribution of the critical slopes were determined by superimposing the critical slope values from sensitivity analyses on slope map of the study area. On the other hand, iso-cohesion and iso-friction maps were produced by locating the values of cohesion and internal friction angles in a geographic coordinate system such that they coincide with sample locations on the DEM and by further interpolation of the values concerned. The pixel values were evaluated in gray scale from 0 to 255, 0 representing the lowest pixel value and 255 representing the highest. Sensitivity analyses on cohesion and angle of internal friction to investigate the effects of these parameters only on stability, revealed that cohesion was effective at a rate of 70% by itself, while angle of internal friction alone controlled the stability by a rate of 30%. The iso-cohesion and iso-friction maps previously obtained were digitally combined in these rates and a ''shear strength map'' was prepared. The geographic setting of the study area is such that northern slopes usually receive dense precipitation. In relation to this fact, about 42% of the landslides are due north.