Activity Patterns of Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species and Comparative Performance of Different Traps in an Endemic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Cukurova Plain, Southern Anatolia, Turkey

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KASAP Ö., Belen A., Kaynas S., Simsek F. M., Biler L., Ata N., ...More

ACTA VETERINARIA BRNO, vol.78, no.2, pp.327-335, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 78 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.2754/avb200978020327
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.327-335
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


An entomological survey for sand flies was conducted from May to October 2006 in a village near an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cukurova Plain, south Anatolia, Turkey. Standard CDC light traps, CO2 traps, sticky traps, mouth aspirators, animal-baited traps and human landing collection were used to determine species composition, density and nocturnal activity of sand fly species. BG-Sentinel Trap, a novel monitoring trap originally developed to attract mosquitoes, was also tested to investigate its efficiency for sand flies. Overall, 4 048 specimens belonging to four species of genus Phlebotomus Rondani et Berte 1840 and two of genus Sergentomyia Fran a et Parrot 1920 were collected. Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, Theodor et Lourie 1930, the proven vector of Leishmania infantum Nicolle 1908 was found to be the most abundant (65.6%) species while P. sergenti Parrot 1917, the proven vector of L. tropica (Wright, 1903) in Turkey accounted for 0.1% of the sand flies that were identified. Other species, P. perfiliewi galilaeus (Theodor 1958), P. papatasi (Scopoli, 1786), Sergentomyia dentata (Sinton, 1933) and Sergentomyia theodori (Parrot, 1942) represented 31%, 2%, 1.5% and 0.3% of the sand fly fauna, respectively. Aggregate population of sand flies was found to be the lowest in May. Population size rose through June and July, with the highest peak in August, and decreased through September and October. Among the traps used, CO2 traps were found to offer a more suitable and productive method than others for both estimating the species composition and the population density of sand flies in the study area. Studies on the nocturnal activity indicated that even the number of captures declined rapidly during dusk period, between 04.00 and 06.00 h, in general, no significant hourly pattern was determined neither the species prevalence nor the nocturnal activity of the species. According to statistical analysis the variation in hourly nighttime temperature did not influence the nocturnal activity of the species whereas the number of collected sand flies during nocturnal period was strongly associated with relative humidity.