Objective. Colchicine is a mainstay of treatment in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); however, 5%-10% of patients do not respond to colchicine. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1 or MDR1) is a drug transporter that extrudes colchicine out of cells. ABCB1 gene 3435C to T polymorphism has been demonstrated to alter MDR1 expression in mononuclear cells. Thus, the amount of MDR1 in mononuclear cells may alter response to colchicine. We investigated the association between MDR1 3435C to T polymorphism and colchicine response in patients with FMF.