A novel series of 2-pyrazoline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory, A beta anti-aggregating and neuroprotective activities. Among these, 3d, 3e, 3g, and 3h were established as the most potent and selective BChE inhibitors (IC50 = 0.5-3.9 mu M), while 3f presented dual inhibitory activity against BChE and AChE (IC50 = 6.0 and 6.5 mu M, respectively). Kinetic analyses revealed that 3g is a partial noncompetitive inhibitor of BChE (Ki = 2.22 mu M), while 3f exerts competitive inhibition on AChE (Ki = 0.63 mu M). The active compounds were subsequently screened for further assessments. 3f, 3g and 3h reduced A beta(1-42) aggregation levels significantly (72.6, 83.4 and 63.4%, respectively). In addition, 3f demonstrated outstanding neuroprotective effects against A beta(1-42)-induced and H2O2-induced cell toxicity (95.6 and 93.6%, respectively). Molecular docking studies were performed with 3g and 3f to investigate binding interactions inside the active sites of BChE and AChE. Compounds 3g and 3f might have the multifunctional potential for use against Alzheimer's disease.