Local bone marrow renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an autocrine-paracrine system affecting hematopoiesis. Angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptors are present on the CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Angiotensin II stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic progenitors. There are preliminary data that local RAS might also be involved in leukemogenesis. ACE hyper-function may lead to the acceleration of negative hematopoietic regulator peptide, AcSDKP, metabolism, which in turn lowers its level in the bone marrow micro-environment, finally removing the antiproliferative effect of AcSDKP on the hematopoietic cells and blasts. Renin expression could have a role on the leukemia development and angiotensin may act as an autocrine growth factor for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The aim of this study is to search ACE ( CD 143) surface antigen by flow-cytometric analyses on the leukemic blast cells taken from the bone marrow of the patients with AML. Bone marrow aspiration materials and peripheral blood samples were obtained from 11 patients with AML ( eight males, three females; aged 46 ( range 26 - 67) years) and six patients with non-malignant hematological disorders ( four males, two females; aged 56 ( range 22 - 71) years). ACE ( CD 143) surface antigen was shown to be over-expressed in leukemic myeloid blast cells. ACE is positively correlated with bone marrow blast count. Elucidation of the pathological activity of the local RAS-mediated regulation of the leukemogenesis is both pathobiologically and clinically important, since the angiotensin peptides represent a molecular target in the disease management.