Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the pregnancy exercise self-efficacy scale

Üzelpasaci E., Özdemir M., GÜRŞEN C.

Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, vol.37, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.srhc.2023.100899
  • Journal Name: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Exercise, Gestation, Pregnancy, Questionnaire, Self efficacy, Validation, Validation study, Women
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: The aim of this study was to adapt the Pregnancy Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES) into Turkish, investigate its reliability and validity in Turkish pregnant women, and obtain a validated tool in order to assess the exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 138 pregnant women participated in the present study. For the translation of the P-ESES into Turkish (P-ESES-T), a six-phase process was followed. The psychometric properties of the P-ESES-T were analyzed in respect of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and criterion validity. To assess the validity of the P-ESES-T, the associations between the P-SES-T and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), the Sensewear Pro3 Armband (n = 31), and the Exercise Barries/Benefits Scale (EBBS) were analyzed. Results: Test-retest reliability for the P-ESES-T total score was found to be very strong (ICCs: 0.986, p < 0.001). Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.899. There were strong correlations between the total scores of the P-ESES-T and PPAQ, and EBBS (r = 0.780, r = 0.874; p < 0.001). However, no significant correlations were found between the total number of steps and energy expenditure obtained from the physical activity monitor and the P-ESES-T (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The P-ESES-T is a reliable and valid tool that can be used to evaluate exercise self-efficacy, which is an important factor that affects exercise participation during pregnancy.