Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality and the need for intensive care in hospitalized non-critical COVID-19 patients: a prospective cohort study


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ÇALIK BAŞARAN N., ÖZDEDE M., UYAROĞLU O. A. , ŞAHİN T. K. , ÖZCAN B., ORAL H., ...More

INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE, vol.17, no.5, pp.1413-1424, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11739-022-02962-6
  • Journal Name: INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1413-1424
  • Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Albumin, Sodium, Blood urea nitrogen, In-hospital mortality, Intensive care unit, CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PERFORMANCE, DISEASE, RISK
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

One of the most helpful strategies to deal with ongoing coronavirus pandemics is to use some prudence when treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, demographic, and laboratory parameters that might have predictive value for in-hospital mortality and the need for intensive care and build a model based on them. This study was a prospective, observational, single-center study including non-critical patients admitted to COVID-19 wards. Besides classical clinic-demographic features, basic laboratory parameters obtained on admission were tested, and then new models for each outcome were developed built on the most significant variables. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed by calculating each model's probability. A total of 368 non-critical hospitalized patients were recruited, the need for ICU care was observed in 70 patients (19%). The total number of patients who died in either ICU or wards was 39 (10.6%). The first two models (based on clinical features and demographics) were developed to predict ICU and death, respectively; older age, male sex, active cancer, and low baseline saturation were noted to be independent predictors. The area under the curve values of the first two models were noted 0.878 and 0.882 (p < .001; confidence interval [CI] 95% [0.837-0.919], p < .001; CI 95% [0.844-0.922]). Following two models, the third and fourth were based on laboratory parameters with clinic-demographic features. Initial lower sodium and lower albumin levels were determined as independent factors in predicting the need for ICU care; higher blood urea nitrogen and lower albumin were independent factors in predicting in-hospital mortality. The area under the curve values of the third and fourth model was noted 0.938 and 0.929, respectively (p < .001; CI 95% [0.912-0.965], p < .001; CI 95% [0.895-962]). By integrating the widely available blood tests results with simple clinic demographic data, non-critical patients can be stratified according to their risk level. Such stratification is essential to filter the patients' non-critical underlying diseases and conditions that can obfuscate the physician's predictive capacity.