Malignant disorders are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. We present herein a renal transplant recipient with malignant lymphoma which preceded by pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Acquired PRCA is a rare hematologic disorder in renal transplant recipients. It has been associated with a variety of disorders of immunologic dysfunction and neoplasms, exposure to drugs and toxins, infectious diseases, pregnancy and severe nutritional deficiency. This is the first case with PRCA preceding the malign lymphoma in a renal transplant patient. Treatment of lymphoma and lymphoma-related humoral and cellular changes or other undefined effects that may be related to therapy may be responsible of the resolving of PRCA in this patient. In this regard, renal transplant patients with acquired PRCA, must be closely followed for an underlying neoplastic disorder. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.