Skeletal remains discovered from the Late Chalcolithic layers of Cadir Hoyuk have been analyzed in terms of demographic structure and intentional head shaping. It is observed that perinatal babies and young infants were buried in dwellings belonging to the earliest phase of the settlement. Burials of older children, located in public and ritual buildings and characterized by the presence of prestigious items, represent an important change in burial customs. Some of these children appear to be affected by head shaping. The low frequency of head shaping within the settlement, location of the burials, and prestigious grave goods may well reflect that the reshaped individuals belonged to high social ranks. Moreover, on the basis of the above-mentioned evidence, reshaped individuals may have inherited their social status at birth.