Development and Psychometric Evaluation of COVID-19 Distress Scale

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TRAK E., ÜZÜMCÜ E., İNÖZÜ M., Haciomeroglu B.

Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.40, no.1, pp.141-152, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier


Recent findings indicate that the COVID-19 outbreak is associated with high distress levels. The present study reports the development and psychometric evaluation of the COVID-19 Distress Scale, a fourteen-item self-report measure assessing anxiety, threat perception, and hopelessness related to COVID-19. In Study 1, 626 individuals completed the COVID-19 Distress Scale and established measures of mental health. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor structure, consisting of anxiety, threat perception, and hopelessness regarding COVID-19. The COVID-19 Distress Scale was internally consistent, had test-retest reliability, concurrent, divergent, and predictive validity. In Study 2, 548 participants completed the COVID-19 Distress Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the scale. These results suggest that the COVID-19 Distress Scale is a robust and multidimensional measure for assessing COVID-19 related distress.