A comprehensive study that compared acoustic rhinometry (AR) data to computed tomography (CT) data was performed to evaluate the accuracy of AR measurements in estimating nasal passage area and to assess its ability of quantifying paranasal sinus volume and ostium size in live humans. Twenty nasal passages of 10 healthy adults were examined by using AR and CT. Actual cross-sectional areas of the nasal cavity, sinus ostia sizes, and maxillary and frontal sinus volumes were determined from CT sections perpendicular to the curved acoustic axis of the nasal passage. Nasal cavity volume ( from nostril to choana) calculated from the AR-derived area-distance curve was compared with that from the CT-derived area-distance curve. AR measurements were also done on pipe models that featured a side branch (Helmholtz resonator of constant volume but two different neck diameters) simulating a paranasal sinus. In the anterior nasal cavity, there was good agreement between the cross-sectional areas determined by AR and CT. However, posterior to the sinus ostia, AR overestimated cross-sectional area. The difference between AR nasal volume and CT nasal volume was much smaller than the combined volume of the maxillary and frontal sinuses. The results suggest that AR measurements of the healthy adult nasal cavity are reasonably accurate to the level of the paranasal sinus ostia. Beyond this point, AR overestimates cross-sectional area and provides no quantitative data for sinus volume or ostium size. The effects of paranasal sinuses and acoustic resonances in the nasal cavity are not accounted for in the present AR algorithms.