Background: While fungaemia caused by two or more different species of yeasts (mixed fungaemia, MF) is infrequent, it might be underestimated. Aims: This study aimed to determine the incidence of MF, clinical characteristics of the patients, and antifungal susceptibility pro files of the isolates with a systematic review of the literature. Sources: Data sources were PubMed and Scopus. Study eligibility criteria: Studies reporting ten or more mixed fungaemia episodes. Content: Study included MF episodes in adults between January 2000 and August 2018 in Hacettepe University Hospitals, Turkey. The isolation, identi fication and antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of the isolates were by standard mycological methods. Patient data were obtained retrospectively. Litera- ture search was performed using relevant keywords according to PRISMA systematic review guidelines. A total of 32 patients with 33 MF episodes were identi fied. Among all fungaemia episodes, MF incidence was 3.7% (33/883). All patients had one or more underlying disorders among which solid -organ cancer (50.0%, 16/32) was the most common. Overall mortality was 51.5% (17/33). The most preferred antifungal agents for initial treatment were fluconazole (48.5%, 16/33) and echinocandins (39.4%, 13/33). Flucona- zole susceptible -dose -dependent (S -DD) or -resistant Candida species were detected in 15 episodes, and an isolate of C. parapsilosis was classi fied as S -DD by AFST. All Candida isolates were susceptible to echinocandins. Non-candida yeasts with intrinsic resistance/reduced susceptibility to both echino- candins and fluconazole were detected in two episodes. Systematic review of the literature revealed 24 studies that reported more than ten MF episodes. Methodology was variable. Improvement of detection rates was reported when chromogenic agars were used. Most studies underlined detection of isolates with reduced susceptibility. Implications: Although rare, the MF rate is affected by the detection methods, which have improved in recent years. Fluconazole and echinocandins were used for initial treatment in accordance with the current guideline recommendations; however, isolates non -susceptible to both were detected. Detection of a mixed infection offers an opportunity for optimum treatment. D. G?lmez, Clin Microbiol Infect 2020;26:833 ? 2020 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.