Wheat is one of the basic food materials for humans and other animals. Continuing studies into breeding new species, which are suitable for agriculture, are based on the contention that the restricting factors are the effects of the nuclear genes. Such focusing of studies on the nuclear genome leads to restriction on the information on organelle DNAs, although cytoplasmic genetic factors are effective on the morphological, physiological and reproductive features of plants. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) has become a powerful tool for studying phylogenetic relationships. In this study, seven wheat species, belonging to Aegilops and Triticum, were studied. An intergenic spacer region of cpDNA was digested by six different restriction endonuclease enzymes, and fragments so obtained were investigated using the agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Discussion on the phylogenetic relationships among Triticum and Aegilops species is based on the resultant data. (c) 2005 The Linnean Society of London.