GLIM criteria as a valid tool for nutrition assessment and mortality prediction in treatment-naïve patients with cancer

BALCI C., Tufan G., Özdemir N., AKSOY S., Öksüzoğlu Ö. B., ZENGİN N., ...More

Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ncp.10969
  • Journal Name: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: cancer, malnutrition, mortality, nutrition assessment, nutrition status
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Clinical care of patients with cancer mostly focuses on medical management with less attention on disease-related malnutrition. The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) released new criteria for diagnosing malnutrition, but the validation of these criteria in treatment-naïve patients with cancer is not well documented. This study aimed to investigate the application of the GLIM criteria in nutrition assessment and mortality prediction in treatment-naïve patients with cancer. Methods: A total of 267 patients newly diagnosed with different types of cancer were enrolled. Nutrition status was assessed with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) at outpatient clinic admission during the data collection period. Furthermore, after the GLIM criteria publication, nutrition status was assessed retrospectively using the GLIM criteria in the same cohort to assess validity. The agreement between the tools was calculated using kappa statistics, and the association of malnutrition according to each tool and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.06 ± 12.6 years, and 42.7% were women. The prevalence of malnutrition was 60.3% with GLIM criteria and 53.6% with PG-SGA. Agreement between tools was moderate (κ = 0.483, P < 0.001). During a median follow-up period of 23.6 months, 99 deaths occurred. Both GLIM-defined and PG-SGA–defined malnutrition was independently associated with 2-year mortality after adjusting for age, sex, presence of comorbidities, and stage of cancer. Conclusions: Our findings support the validation of GLIM in diagnosing malnutrition and predicting 2-year mortality among treatment-naïve patients with cancer.