Obezite, Gıda güvencesi ve Makroekonomik Faktörler:104 Ülke Verilerinin Değerlendirilmesi


Yılmaz Işıkhan S. , Güleç D.

3. Uluslararası Sağlık Bilimleri Kongresi, Ankara, Türkiye, 29 Kasım - 01 Aralık 2018, ss.245-256

  • Basıldığı Şehir: Ankara
  • Basıldığı Ülke: Türkiye
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.245-256

Özet

ABSTRACT Objective: The prevalence of obesity in terms of gender and overall varies greatly among countries, but it is an increasing global problem. A good understanding of macro determinants in the fight against obesity is important to develop effective policies. This study aims to reveal the relationship between food security and some macroeconomic variables with the prevalence of obesity. Method: In the data collection, 2017 obesity prevalence (women, men, general), global food security index data and macroeconomic variables were determined as gini index, unemployment and urbanization rates. 104 countries whose data can be accessed fully were included in the study. Two-Stage Clustering Analysis was used to divide countries into similar groups in terms of the factors considered. Multiple comparisons were performed with Dunn’s-Sidak correction tests. Finally, three different linear regression models have been developed in order to reveal the components that affect the prevalence of general obesity, female obesity and male obesity. Data were mapped using geographic information system software (QGIS) to show and define geographic patterns of obesity prevalence in countries. Results: The countries included in the study were separated into three sets with the existing variables. It was determined that the first group had young, low obesity prevalence, high employment level, low level food security and low urbanization. In the countries included in the second cluster, high levels of women obesity perevelance, unemployment and income inequality were observed. In the third cluster countries, while the average age, prevalence of male obesity, food security and urbanization were high, income inequality was found to be low. According to the results of linear regression analysis, the relationship between the prevalence of general obesity and macroeconomic variables of food availability, employment, unemployment and urbanization was significant (p <0.05). Natural resources (b = 0.163, p = 0.036) and urbanization (b = 0.196, p <0.001) showed positive effects on male obesity prevalence but income inequality had negative effect (b = -0.186, p = 0.033). Urbanization (b = 0.219, p <0.001) and unemployment (b = 0.505, p = 0.011) had positive effects on female obesity, while food availability (b = -0.572, p = 0.038) and employment (b = -0.147, p = 0.038 ) had negative effects. Conclusion: It has been observed that in developed countries where the prevalence of male obesity is higher, policies towards social and physical problems of urbanization in combating obesity may be more effective. Access to food, unemployment and urbanization will be the policy tools that should be considered in the fight against both female obesity and ABSTRACT Objective: The prevalence of obesity in terms of gender and overall varies greatly among countries, but it is an increasing global problem. A good understanding of macro determinants in the fight against obesity is important to develop effective policies. This study aims to reveal the relationship between food security and some macroeconomic variables with the prevalence of obesity. Method: In the data collection, 2017 obesity prevalence (women, men, general), global food security index data and macroeconomic variables were determined as gini index, unemployment and urbanization rates. 104 countries whose data can be accessed fully were included in the study. Two-Stage Clustering Analysis was used to divide countries into similar groups in terms of the factors considered. Multiple comparisons were performed with Dunn’s-Sidak correction tests. Finally, three different linear regression models have been developed in order to reveal the components that affect the prevalence of general obesity, female obesity and male obesity. Data were mapped using geographic information system software (QGIS) to show and define geographic patterns of obesity prevalence in countries. Results: The countries included in the study were separated into three sets with the existing variables. It was determined that the first group had young, low obesity prevalence, high employment level, low level food security and low urbanization. In the countries included in the second cluster, high levels of women obesity perevelance, unemployment and income inequality were observed. In the third cluster countries, while the average age, prevalence of male obesity, food security and urbanization were high, income inequality was found to be low. According to the results of linear regression analysis, the relationship between the prevalence of general obesity and macroeconomic variables of food availability, employment, unemployment and urbanization was significant (p <0.05). Natural resources (b = 0.163, p = 0.036) and urbanization (b = 0.196, p <0.001) showed positive effects on male obesity prevalence but income inequality had negative effect (b = -0.186, p = 0.033). Urbanization (b = 0.219, p <0.001) and unemployment (b = 0.505, p = 0.011) had positive effects on female obesity, while food availability (b = -0.572, p = 0.038) and employment (b = -0.147, p = 0.038 ) had negative effects. Conclusion: It has been observed that in developed countries where the prevalence of male obesity is higher, policies towards social and physical problems of urbanization in combating obesity may be more effective. Access to food, unemployment and urbanization will be the policy tools that should be considered in the fight against both female obesity and