The role of supplementary cementitious materials and fiber reinforcements in enhancing the sulfate attack resistance of SCC/ECC composite systems

Baloch W. L., Siad H., Lachemi M., ŞAHMARAN M.

Construction and Building Materials, vol.423, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 423
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2024.135821
  • Journal Name: Construction and Building Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Composite systems, Engineered cementitious composites, Fiber reinforcements, Secondary cementitious materials, Sulfate exposure
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of sulfate exposure on the mechanical behavior of fresh-to-fresh composite systems (CS), incorporating self-compacting concrete (SCC) in compression and engineered cementitious composites (ECC) in tension. ECCs were designed based on various supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as low and high calcium fly ash, slag and reinforcing fibers such as PVA and steel fibers. Repeated cycles of immersion in concentrated sodium sulfate solution were followed by drying at high temperatures (80 °C). After 90 and 180 days of cyclic exposure, the mechanical properties including flexural, compressive and tensile bond strength and mass change were evaluated. To investigate microstructural deterioration and reaction product concentration, SEM-EDS and backscattered electron imaging were used to examine sulfate profiles at the interfacial zone between SCC and ECC. Composite samples demonstrated excellent physico-mechanical resilience. The incorporation of low calcium fly ash and slag was observed to have a beneficial impact on residual mechanical properties in long-term exposures, along with the de-passivation capacity of the reinforcing fibers. No physical de-bonding was observed in any CS, however phase assemblages revealed high concentrations of reaction products in the SCC layers near the interfacial bond with the ECC layers.