As a requirement of the globalizing world, the borders between countries have been crossed due to reasons such as labor migration, war, education and brain drain, and this has required new regulations. Perhaps the most important of these regulations is in the field of language teaching. After the first generation who migrated to new countries for various reasons, a language problem also emerged. Especially after the labor migration agreements made in 1960 and later, there has been an important Turkish migration to Europe (Yıldız, 2008). The date when the teaching of Turkish in Europe and the teaching of Turkish as a mother tongue should be done in conditions outside the country also started with these worker migrations (Yağmur, 2006; Yıldız, 2008). Migrations, which were thought to be temporary and limited to workers at the beginning, became permanent after the migrating workers brought their families with them after a while; brought with it the problem of social integration. However, from the first generation that migrated to Europe with the labor agreement, a generation that has no ties to the homeland (never lived in Turkey) has emerged from the next generation. In cases where the language proficiency of the immigrant families in the language of the country of emigration was not sufficiently developed, major problems were encountered in terms of education when immigrant families started school. Bilingualism in immigrant and immigrant communities is important in terms of adapting to life and being a part of education processes of children with immigrant background. For this reason, it is necessary for immigrant children to master the language of the country of immigration together with their mother tongue so that they can be included in formal education (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2004: cited in Bingöl-Arslangilay, 2013). For the case of being bilingual; There are acceptances such as speaking both languages perfectly, being able to speak two languages as alternatives to each other, having the capacity to communicate with the speakers of both languages in terms of socio-communication, using a language other than their mother tongue to a certain extent (Bölükbaş- Kaya et al., 2019).
In the research, it is aimed to examine the academic studies in the field of bilingualism and to reveal the relations between these studies. For this purpose, descriptive analysis was used and bibliometric analysis technique was applied. While scanning, a search was made to include the keywords "bilingualism" and "Turkish" together. As a result of the search, 223 articles were found. 5 articles published in 2021 from these studies, whose publication years were between 1988-2021, were excluded from the research due to the high probability of an increase in the number of publications in the same year. At the same time, 2 retracted publications were not included in the study. 216 publications added to the Web of Science database in a period of approximately thirty years have been considered as units of analysis.
Result and Discussion
In this study, which aims to analyze the studies in the field of bilingualism and to make a
bibliometric analysis, the distribution of the studies conducted between 1988-2021 (except 2021) by
years, the keyword network, the network of the authors publishing, the countries where the
publication is made and the network of the cited publications are shown.
When we look at the keyword network, it is observed that keywords such as bilingualism,
second language acquisition, vocabulary teaching, Turkish immigrants, foreign language acquisition,
multilingualism, acquisition are frequently used. However, when the distribution of keywords by years
is examined, it is seen that the variety of words and the number of words have increased, and the
keyword network has expanded, as well as basic words such as bilingualism. When the network of
countries broadcasting in the field of bilingualism is examined, it is seen that countries such as
Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey come to the fore.
It is seen that the process that started in the 1960s with labor migration in the process Turkey
is in continues today; However, it is known that a large number of immigrants have been received due
to various reasons such as war and uncertainty in the border neighbors. For this reason, it is expected
that bilingualism studies will increase in focuses such as teaching Turkish to Syrian immigrants. With
the expansion of the borders of the studies, it is possible to expand the keyword network, the country
and the cited author network.
Bu çalışmada, Türkçede iki dillilik üzerine yapılan araştırmaların anahtar kelime, yazar, üniversite, ülke, atıf ve benzeri yönlerden dağılımının incelenmesi ve yapılan incelemeyle iki dillilik araştırmalarının güncel durumunun tespiti amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada bilimsel haritalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada öncelikle Web of Science (WoS) veri tabanında (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, AHCI, ESCI indexlerini içeren) “İki Dillilik (Bilingualism)” ve “Türkçe (Turkish)” kelimelerinin birlikte geçtiği bir arama yapılmış, arama sonucunda 223 çalışma bulunmuştur. Yayımlanma yılları 1988-2021 arasında olan bu araştırmalardan 2021 yılında yayımlanmış olan 5 makale, aynı yıl içinde yayın sayısının artma olasılığının yüksek olmasından dolayı araştırma dışı bırakılmıştır. Ayrıca geri çekilen 2 makale de çalışma kapsamına alınmamıştır. Yaklaşık otuz yıllık süreçte Web of Science veri tabanına eklenen 216 yayın analiz birimi olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu yayınlar Vosviewer paket programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. İncelenen yayınların; yayın türü, yayınların ülkelere göre dağılımı, anahtar kelimeleri, atıf sayısı, yayın yapılan dergiler, yazarların kurumları haritalandırılmış, görselleştirilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. 30 yıllık süreçte ele alınan yayınların yarıdan fazlasının 2015-2020 yılları arasında üretildiği; yayınların anahtar kelimelerinin, iki dillilik, çok dillilik, iki dilli eğitim, Türk göçmenler, Türk göçmen çocukları, çapraz dilsel etki, Türkçe-Almanca iki dillilik, ikinci dil edinimi gibi sözcükleri içerdiği bulgularına erişilmiştir.