Introduction: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are potentially life-threatening conditions in critically ill patients. Laparascopic surgery is the gold standard and has been widely performed for many procedures since its inception in the early 1980s. Pneumoperitoneum is essential for laparascopic surgery. Dexmedetomidine is a potent and highly selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic and analgesic properties without respiratory depression. There is increasing evidence of its organ protective effects against ischemic and hypoxic injury, including neuroprotection, cardioprotection and renoprotection. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of the a-2 adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine on IAH induced by renal injury.