Population structure of a society forms an important basis for the establishment and implementation of policies going to be applied. Population change reveals the main features of structural developments of the society and cultural, social and economical changes affect the population structure. The population structure of Turkey has changed noticeably since the Proclamation of the Republic. For instance, population growth rate, birth and death rates, education level, settlement and line of work of the population have changed perceptibly. The subject of the study is the period of the 1960s and the following years, in which important decisions have been made on the population policy of Turkey. The study aims to discuss the population growth rate, key determinants of population structure, population age structure, education level, marital status, rural and urban population, sectoral breakdown of the employed population in the post-1960 era in Turkey by using the data based on Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI) statistics.