Most patients with juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) are homozygous for mutations in the gene TNFRSF11B that result in deficiency of osteoprotegerin (OPG) a key regulator of bone turnover. So far, about 10 different OPG mutations have been described. The current study presents two novel OPG mutations in JPD patients. Patient 1 was diagnosed at the age of 9 months when he presented with inability to sit up, slow growth, marked bone pain and very high levels of serum alkaline phosphatase. Patient 2 presented a milder phenotype. He was initially diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta, and although he had numerous fractures and bone deformity, he was still independently mobile at the age of 19 years, when a diagnosis of JPD was confirmed. Sequence analysis of DNA samples from the patients determined two novel homozygous mutations in TNFSRF11B. Patient 1 (severe phenotype) had a large (245-251 kbp) homozygous deletion beginning in intron 1 that resulted in loss of 4 of the 5 exons of TNFSRF11B, including the whole ligand-binding domain. Patient 2 had a homozygous missense mutation resulting in a Thr > Pro change in exon 2 of TNFSRF11B that is predicted to disrupt the OPG ligand-binding domain. Taken in conjunction with other published cases, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the most severe phenotypes in JPD are seen in patients with major gene deletions or mutations affecting cysteine residues in the ligand-binding domain. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.