© 2020, The Author(s).This study aimed to evaluate the possible changes of neopterin, biopterin levels and tryptophan degradation in diabetes and to compare the results within diabetes groups and with healthy subjects. Diabetes mellitus patients and healthy controls were recruited the study. Patients were further subgrouped according to their drug therapy. Serum neopterin concentrations were detected by ELISA. Urinary neopterin, biopterin, serum tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) levels were detected by HPLC. There was no difference between controls and diabetes patients in serum neopterin, urinary neopterin and biopterin levels (p > 0.05, all). Serum Trp and Kyn levels were significantly different in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients compared to controls (p < 0.05, both). Serum neopterin levels were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM) compared to T1DM (p < 0.05). Urinary biopterin levels of T2DM patients using both metformin and vildagliptin were significantly higher than T1DM patients (p < 0.05). The correlations between serum neopterin and urinary neopterin, Kyn and Kyn/Trp were statistically significant in control and patient groups (p < 0.05, all). The study showed that Kyn/Trp was altered in diabetes patients due to immune modulation. On the other hand, although xenobiotic exposure may change pteridine levels, metformin and/or vildagliptin use in T2DM patients did not have any effect on the measured parameters.