This study focuses on a displacement-based approach for the investigation of seismic behavior of two monumental buildings constructed in the historical Cappadocia region of Turkey. The first historic building is located in the town of Konakli, which is 27 km away from the city of Nigde and is situated in north-east of the city. It was built in 1844 and has served as a temple. The second building is located in the town of Fertek, 2 km from the city of Nigde. It has been used as a temple since it was built in 1835. These two buildings are seen as representative of many similar temple buildings constructed in the Cappadocia region during the same era. The seismic behavior of these two monumental buildings is investigated using dynamic analysis procedures. The buildings are subjected to ground motion records obtained during recent earthquakes in Turkey. These ground motions were recorded during the Ceyhan earthquake of 1998, which occurred close to Nigde; the Marmara earthquake of 1999 and the Duzce earthquake of 1999. Dynamic analyses are conducted for two cases with and without walls, as this helps in identification of the effect of structural walls on the seismic behaviors of these buildings. In the light of the dynamic analyses results, the expected level of damage and structural irregularities of the monumental buildings are examined. It is observed that slab discontinuities on the first floors constitute a major element in the expected structural damage for both buildings. Destructive levels of deformation are observed at Konakli in the roof domes of the building. In addition, upon application of certain ground motions, destructive levels of drift are observed, another element contributing to the expected damage.