Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric and Adolescent Tumors


Kiratli P. O. , TUNCEL M. , bar-sever Z.

SEMINARS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE, cilt.46, ss.308-323, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 46 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2016.01.004
  • Dergi Adı: SEMINARS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.308-323

Özet

Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma.(18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines. Limitations and strengths of PET imaging must be noticed before adapting PET imaging in clinical protocols. Established new response criteria using multiple parameters derived from (18)FDG-PET would increase the accuracy and repeatability of response evaluation. Current data suggest that 1-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) remains the tracer of choice in the evaluation of neuroblastoma (NB) because of its high sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and prognostic value. It is valuable in determining the response to therapy, surveillance for disease recurrence, and in selecting patients for I-131 therapy. SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy and the interpretation confidence of MIBG scans. (18)FDG-PET/CT is an important complementary to MIBG imaging despite its lack of specificity to NB. It is valuable in cases of negative or inconclusive MIBG scans and when MIBG findings underestimate the disease status as determined from clinical and radiological findings. F-18 DOPA is promising tracer that reflects catecholamine metabolism and is both sensitive and specific. F-18 DOPA scintigraphy provides the advantages of PET/CT imaging with early and short imaging times, high spatial resolution, inherent morphologic correlation with CT, and quantitation. Regulatory and production issues currently limit the tracer's availability. PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA appears to be useful in NB imaging and may have a unique role in selecting patients for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues. C-11 hydroxyephedrine PET/CT is a specific PET tracer for NB, but the C-11 label that requires an on-site cyclotron production and the high physiologic uptake in the liver and kidneys limit its use. I-124 MIBG is useful for I-131 MIBG pretherapeutic dosimetry planning. Its use for diagnostic imaging as well as the use of F-18 labeled MIBG analogues is currently experimental. PET/MR imaging is emerging and is likely to become an important tool in the evaluation. It provides metabolic and superior morphological data in one imaging session, expediting the diagnosis and lowering the radiation exposure. Radioactive iodines not only detect residual tissue and metastatic disease but also are used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. However, these are not well documented in pediatric age group like adult patients. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is very important and strictly controlled because of the possibility of secondary malignities; therefore, management of oncological cases requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to review the literature on the use of radionuclide imaging and therapy in pediatric population with thyroid cancer, sarcomas, lymphoma, and NB. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma.(18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines. Limitations and strengths of PET imaging must be noticed before adapting PET imaging in clinical protocols. Established new response criteria using multiple parameters derived from (18)FDG-PET would increase the accuracy and repeatability of response evaluation. Current data suggest that 1-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) remains the tracer of choice in the evaluation of neuroblastoma (NB) because of its high sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and prognostic value. It is valuable in determining the response to therapy, surveillance for disease recurrence, and in selecting patients for I-131 therapy. SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy and the interpretation confidence of MIBG scans. (18)FDG-PET/CT is an important complementary to MIBG imaging despite its lack of specificity to NB. It is valuable in cases of negative or inconclusive MIBG scans and when MIBG findings underestimate the disease status as determined from clinical and radiological findings. F-18 DOPA is promising tracer that reflects catecholamine metabolism and is both sensitive and specific. F-18 DOPA scintigraphy provides the advantages of PET/CT imaging with early and short imaging times, high spatial resolution, inherent morphologic correlation with CT, and quantitation. Regulatory and production issues currently limit the tracer's availability. PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA appears to be useful in NB imaging and may have a unique role in selecting patients for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues. C-11 hydroxyephedrine PET/CT is a specific PET tracer for NB, but the C-11 label that requires an on-site cyclotron production and the high physiologic uptake in the liver and kidneys limit its use. I-124 MIBG is useful for I-131 MIBG pretherapeutic dosimetry planning. Its use for diagnostic imaging as well as the use of F-18 labeled MIBG analogues is currently experimental. PET/MR imaging is emerging and is likely to become an important tool in the evaluation. It provides metabolic and superior morphological data in one imaging session, expediting the diagnosis and lowering the radiation exposure. Radioactive iodines not only detect residual tissue and metastatic disease but also are used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. However, these are not well documented in pediatric age group like adult patients. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is very important and strictly controlled because of the possibility of secondary malignities; therefore, management of oncological cases requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to review the literature on the use of radionuclide imaging and therapy in pediatric population with thyroid cancer, sarcomas, lymphoma, and NB