A study on the real-time code-based GNSS positioning with Android smartphones


MEASUREMENT, vol.194, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.measurement.2022.111078
  • Journal Name: MEASUREMENT
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, INSPEC
  • Keywords: GNSS, Android, Smartphones, Real-time, Standalone positioning, Kinematic, PRECISE, GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, BDS-2, BIAS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study concentrates on the real-time standalone positioning that depends on single-frequency code observations with three smartphones, Xiaomi Mi 8, Google Pixel 4, and Pixel 4 XL, in the kinematic environment. For real-time positioning, two positioning approaches, which respectively employ ultra-rapid and IGS real-time service (IGS-RTS) products, are adopted in this study. Also, this study provides an advanced processing strategy that utilizes the variance component estimation method in determining the multi-GNSS observation weights. The experimental tests reveal that compared with ultra-rapid products, the use of IGS-RTS products augments the positioning accuracy of multi-GNSS solution by 5.4, 11.0, and 11.2% for Mi 8, Pixel 4, and Pixel 4XL smart phones. Also, Xiaomi Mi 8 can provide positioning accuracy of 7 m with the advanced processing strategy that improves the positioning performance of smartphones by 11.0% on average. Still, the improvement rate of the advanced processing strategy can reach 22.1% in some cases.