The synergistic effects of betanin and radiotherapy in a prostate cancer cell line: an in vitro study

Montazersaheb S., jafari S., Aytemir M., Ahmadian E., Ardalan M., Zor M., ...More

Molecular Biology Reports, vol.50, no.11, pp.9307-9314, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11033-023-08828-0
  • Journal Name: Molecular Biology Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.9307-9314
  • Keywords: Betanin, Prostate cancer, Radiotherapy
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Prostate cancer is among the most common cancers in men with an increasing incidence rate. Radiation therapy (RT) is a therapeutic strategy for the management of prostate cancer after surgery; nonetheless, it has different side effects on neighboring healthy cells/tissues. Moreover, radioresistance has been an increasing phenomenon in the recent years. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the introduction of a safe and effective radiosensitizing agent. Accordingly, the recent trend in the development of novel drugs is accompanied by a push toward natural compounds. Our study evaluated the effects of betanin combined with RT as a potential radiosensitizing agent in the PC-3 cell line. Methods and results: MTT assay was utilized to determine the growth inhibitory impact of betanin. The possible synergistic effect was evaluated with CompuSyn software upon Trypan blue exclusion test. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated via Real-time PCR and the protein expression of P21 was determined using western blotting. A synergistic anticancer effect with an optimal combination index of 0.61 was achieved by treating PC-3 cells with betanin and RT. The results pointed out that betanin synergistically triggered RT-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through modulating gene and protein expression in comparison with each of the monotherapies. Conclusion: These findings shed light on the synergistic antitumor effect of betanin and RT in prostate cancer, indicating the potential use of betanin as a radiosensitizer agent.