Novel Technologies Used in the Assessment of Patellofemoral Pain: A Scoping Review

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ARIN BAL G., BAYRAKCI TUNAY V., Benedetti M. G., Leardini A., Vismara F., Belvedere C.

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.13, no.19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app131910825
  • Journal Name: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: biomechanics, clinical evaluation, electromyography, gait analysis, medical imaging, patellofemoral pain, technology-based assessment
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This scoping review aims to present existing evidence on new technologies reported recently to assess patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The literature search was conducted in September 2023, and search engines were Medline (via Pubmed), Scopus, and Cochrane Central. The preferred search term was “patellofemoral pain”, as the 2016 PFP consensus statement recommended, and several subgroups were arranged to find any possible technology-related assessment. The total number of articles found was 7927. After eliminating duplicates, 2058 articles remained for the title and abstract screening. Methods sections of the articles were investigated for data charting. Among the 652 full-text articles, 8 met our inclusion criteria on gait analysis, 34 on imaging, and 95 on EMG. However, only 5 included innovative technology, 2 used cone-beam CT, 1 used a device in medical imaging to apply stress to the patella in anatomical directions, and 2 used a novel EMG electrode system based on a high-density linear array. The results of this review demonstrate the large use of innovative technologies in PFP, particularly using medical imaging and state-of-the-art gait analysis, sometimes used together for thorough biomechanical studies. Because modern technology can provide precise and detailed information, exploiting these to design more effective prevention campaigns and patient-specific rehabilitation programs is fundamental. Investigations are becoming increasingly translational and multidisciplinary as a fusion of technological and clinical perspectives brings significant insights to PFP.