AAPS PHARMSCITECH, vol.21, no.8, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
l-Carnitine has attracted much more attention especially in the treatment of crucial diseases such as diabetes, regional slimming, and obesity because of its metabolic activities. However, because of its short half-life, low bioavailability, and inability to be stored in the body, frequent dosing is required. In this study, l-carnitine-loaded liposome (lipo-carnitine) and PLGA nanoparticle (nano-carnitine) formulations were prepared and characterized. For lipo-carnitine and nano-carnitine formulations, particle size values were 97.88 +/- 2.96 nm and 250.90 +/- 6.15 nm; polydispersity index values were 0.35 +/- 0.01 and 0.22 +/- 0.03; zeta potential values were 6.36 +/- 0.54 mV and - 32.80 +/- 2.26 mV; and encapsulation efficiency percentage values were 14.26 +/- 3.52% and 21.93 +/- 4.17%, respectively. Comparative in vitro release studies of novel formulations and solution of l-carnitine revealed that l-carnitine released 90% of its content at the end of 1st hour. On the other hand, lipo-carnitine and nano-carnitine formulations maintained a controlled-release profile for 12 h. The in vitro efficacy of the formulations on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) was evaluated by metabolomic studies and pathway analysis. Besides the prolonged release, lipo-carnitine/nano-carnitine formulations were also found to be effective on amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolisms. As a result, innovative nano-formulations were successfully developed as an alternative to conventional preparations which are available on the market.