Mycotoxin detection in maize, commercial feed, and raw dairy milk samples from Assiut City, Egypt

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Abdallah M. F., Girgin G., Baydar T.

Veterinary Sciences, vol.6, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 6
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/vetsci6020057
  • Journal Name: Veterinary Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: mycotoxins, maize, raw milk, aflatoxins, ochratoxin a, zearalenone, HPLC, Egypt, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, FUNGAL METABOLITES, OCHRATOXIN-A, AFLATOXINS, ZEARALENONE, HUMANS, GRAINS, IMPACT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This survey was conducted to investigate the contamination by multiple mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) in 61 samples of maize and 17 commercial animal feed samples, and of aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) in raw dairy milk samples (n = 20) collected from Assiut City in Upper Egypt. Multi-mycotoxin immunoaffinity columns were used for samples cleanup and mycotoxin purification. An HPLC-FLD system with an on-line post-column photochemical derivatization was used for the detection of the target toxins. AFB(1) was detected in both maize (n = 15) and feed (n = 8), with only one maize sample presenting a concentration above the maximum permissible level set by the Egyptian authorities. AFB(2) was observed in six maize samples and in one feed sample, with a maximum value of 0.5 mu g/kg. ZEA was detected only in feed samples (n = 4), with a maximum value of 3.5 mu g/kg, while OTA, AFG(1), and AFG(2) were under the limits of detection. For milk, all the analyzed samples (100%) were contaminated with AFM(1), and 14 samples (70%) presented concentrations above the maximum permissible level in the European Union (EU) (0.05 mu g/kg). The concentrations ranged from 0.02 mu g/kg to 0.19 mu g/kg, except that of one sample, which was under the limit of quantification. The contamination rates in maize and animal feeds are not alarming. In contrast, the consumption of dairy milk samples in Assiut City may pose public health hazards, as AFM(1) levels were found to exceed the international permissible limits. Further surveys are highly recommended in order to establish a database for mycotoxin occurrence in Egypt to minimize the possible health risks in animals and humans.