Tissue factor (TF), the trigger of blood coagulation, is a 47 kDa membrane protein that also impacts on non-hemostatic processes, such as atherosclerosis, primary tumor growth and metastasis. TF binding to its ligand FVIIa induces activation of protease-activated receptor-2 and this event is thought to considerably influence atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. TF-dependent activation of the coagulation cascade, rather than PAR-2 activation, then leads to the potentiation of metastasis. Importantly, a soluble alternatively spliced isoform of TF (asTF) has been discovered, but the function of asTF in hemostatic and non-hemostatic events is poorly understood. In this review, we aim to present a side-by-side evaluation of normally-spliced, full length TF (flTF) and asTF with regard to coagulant function, atherosclerosis, tumor progression and malignancy-associated thrombosis. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.