Acrylamide, a food contaminant, belongs to a large class of structurally similar toxic chemicals, 'type-2 alkenes', to which humans are widely exposed. Besides, occupational exposure to acrylamide has received wide attention through the last decades. It is classified as a neurotoxin and there are three important hypothesis considering acrylamide neurotoxicity: inhibition of kinesin-based fast axonal transport, alteration of neurotransmitter levels, and direct inhibition of neurotransmission. While many researchers believe that exposure of humans to relatively low levels of acrylamide in the diet will not result in clinical neuropathy, some neurotoxicologists are concerned about the potential for its cumulative neurotoxicity. It has been shown in several studies that the same neurotoxic effects can be observed at low and high doses of acrylamide, with the low doses simply requiring longer exposures. This review is focused on the neurotoxicity of acrylamide and its possible outcomes.