Objectives Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (NEC) increase with age due to pulmonary maturity. The aim of this study was to determine whether open lung biopsies from patients with interstitial lung diseases have increased pulmonary NEC compared with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Our second aim was to assess pulmonary NECs in the lung autopsy of children without lung disease who died from different causes. Methods Lung tissue of 5 infants with NEHI; 21 patients with pediatric interstitial lung disease (chILD); 17 lung autopsies of infants at varying age without lung disease were included. The percentage of the airways containing neuroendocrine cells, the average percentage of neuroendocrine cells (NECs) per airway, and the number of neuroendocrine bodies (NEBs) in each case were analyzed. Results The mean percentage of the airways containing neuroendocrine cells were 95% in the NEHI group, 30% in the chILD group, 89% under Intrauterine 37 weeks, 70% between intrauterine 37 to 40 weeks, 52% at postnatal 4 days to 6 months of autopsy ages. In the NEHI group, diffuse NE cell distribution and large NEBs were noticed in the lung biopsy. In the chILD group, neuroendocrine cells were dispersed, did not form clusters and NE cells showed solitary distribution. In the lung autopsy group, linear NE cells were detected at younger aged fetuses and solitary distribution of NE cells was detected with the older increasing age. Conclusions Our findings confirm that NECs are seen in many other childhood interstitial lung diseases; NE cell hyperplasia may be a marker of decreased pulmonary development and NE cells decrease with the increasing age of the fetus during Intrauterine life.