Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as the development of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before the age of 40 with definitive treatment being absent. In the current study, we aim to compare the efficacy of the cell sheet method with an intravenous (IV) application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) to the POI with an animal model. In the current prospective study, 6-to-8-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were generated four groups: (i) a control group in which only PBS was administered; (ii) an only-POI group generated by cyclophosphamide; (iii) a POI group treated by way of IV AdMSCs; and (iv) a POI group treated by way of the cell sheet method. Twenty-eight days after an oophorectomy was performed, intracardiac blood was taken. Follicle count, immunohistochemical examination for GDF9, BMP15, and TUNEL were conducted, gene expressions of GDF9 and BMP15 were examined, and E2 was measured in the serum samples. With hematoxylin-eosin, in the third group, multi oocytes follicles were the most remarkable finding. In the fourth group, most of the follicles presented normal morphology. GDF9 involvement was similar between the first and fourth groups. BMP-15 immunoreactivity, in contrast to fourth group, was weak in all stages in the second and third groups. The current attempt represents a pioneer study in the literature in which a cell sheet method is used for the first time in a POI model. These results suggest that the cell sheet method may be a feasible and efficient method for the stem cell treatment of models with POI and could be a new treatment approach in POI.