CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, vol.62, no.7, pp.1725-1739, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, known as pseudocereals, have been consumed since ancient times and are considered sacred in most cultures. Their grains can be used as cereals for breakfast or mixed with other grains in meals and their health-enhancing effects have been investigated more in recent years. They have an antioxidant effect and their nutrient profiles are enriched with processing techniques such as sprouting and fermentation. Their suitability to different processing techniques and the rapid increase in microbiota researches highlighted the probiotic/prebiotic effects of pseudocereals. Using cultures or naturally fermented amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat exhibited good substrate properties for probiotic bacteria, especially for Lactobacillus strains. Studies have found that they reduce the number of pathogen microorganisms, increase the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids due to their prebiotic effects. Also the number of bacterial colonies do not change during the storage period and their organoleptic properties are revealed. It has been determined that pseudocereals decrease Ruminococcacea, Lachnospiraceae, Helicobacteracea, Clostridium, Escherichia and increase Peptoclostridium, Prevotellaceae, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, and Eubacteriaceae. Due to these effects, they are considered as good sources for synbiotic formulations to be developed for the treatment of dysbiosis, obesity, Celiac Disease, lactose intolerance, inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammation-mediated chronic disorders.