Phonological awareness skills begin to develop at preschool ages and support reading skills during school ages. Studies on phonological awareness show great relationship with reading skills development. Since literacy talents such as phonological awareness and vocabulary represent future success in reading, assisting literacy skills during preschool period, has a great importance in preventing problems associated wit reading abilities of upcoming years. Literature suggests Positive effects of phonological awareness on reading abilities. However, not only the positive effects of phonological awareness on reading skills, but also the relation between phonological awareness and reading skills should be considered. The aim of this article is to emphasize phonological awareness in terms of description, development and its' effects on reading skills and discusses the possible positive outcomes of the phonological awareness skills training given beginning from the preschool period in Turkey.